The high rate of misdiagnoses and unwarranted costs compelled the founders of F2 Solutions to develop a better solution for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients with Faint or Fall.

All members of the healthcare spectrum from the patient to the doctor and including payers, will benefit from F2 Solutions algorithms by helping healthcare providers reduce the number of inappropriate hospital admissions.

The Problem

F2 Solutions was borne out of the need to provide those in the healthcare continuum (patients, doctors, hospitals and payers) with a better solution for their diagnosis, treatment and management of the large and growing number of patients who have had a Fainting or Falling spell.

In spite of recently published guidelines, the evaluation and treatment of patients with a Faint or Fall is often haphazard and un-stratified. The result is inappropriate use of diagnostic tests, a high rate of misdiagnosis, and a significant number of unwarranted hospital admissions.

The Solution

Accordingly, Dr. Hamdan and Dr. Brignole determined to address this problem by developing an algorithm that would first, increase the quality of patient care, and second, help decrease unwarranted costs to the healthcare system. “Better Patient Care at Lower Cost” became the central objective of their development efforts.

The algorithm was developed by utilizing the most current published medical guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and management of patients with Faint or Fall. It helped greatly that Dr. Brignole was Chairman/Member of the European Society of Cardiology Task Force on Syncope in writing Guidelines On The Management (diagnosis and treatment) Of Syncope in 2001, 2004, and 2009 versions.

Algorithm Development

Therefore the algorithm was developed, and was then validated at the University of Utah in a retrospective review involving 254 patients who presented to the Emergency Department with a diagnosis of syncope. The analysis presented the perfect opportunity to view with hindsight what were appropriate and inappropriate admissions as well as appropriate and inappropriate discharges.

According to the University of Utah Faint-Algorithm, the number of inappropriate discharges and admissions were 8 out of 136 (6%) and 69 out of 118 (58%) respectively. The prevalence of serious events in the inappropriately discharged group (n=8) was not significantly different than in the appropriately admitted group (n=49)(13% vs. 16%, p=NS). Similarly, the prevalence of serious events in the inappropriately admitted group (n=69) was not significantly different than in the appropriately discharged group (n=128)(3% vs. 3%, p=NS). Using the Faint-Algorithm, only 57 (22%) patients instead of 118 (46%) patients should have been admitted resulting in a 52% reduction in admission rate without a significant difference in the prevalence of serious events in the discharged group.


F2 Solutions has now begun its presentation of the algorithm in its endeavor to contribute to improving patient care while lowering costs for the healthcare system.